KIDS HAVE STROKES
Conditions Associated with Stroke in Children
Also see Risk
Factors for Infant Stroke
When we discuss causes of a stroke in childhood, we're actually discussing risk factors for childhood stroke. A risk factor is something that may increase the likelihood of a disease, condition, or injury. Listed below are risk factors that may be associated with stroke in a child. Even though a risk factor may be identified, this does not necessarily mean that the risk factor is what caused the stroke.
The cause of stroke in children is unknown in one-third of cases. The most common reported risk factors for stroke in children include cardiac disorders, sickle cell disease, coagulation disorders, arterial dissection, moya moya, infection, and other rare genetic disorders.
Cardiac disorders or heart diseases are the most common cause of ischemic stroke in children and account for up to 50% of strokes in case series. The risk of stroke in children with congenital heart disease is related to the abnormality, diagnostic and surgical procedures, and associated genetic or acquired factors that predispose children to thrombosis. Cardiac disorders can lead to the development of intracardiac thrombi that may embolize to the brain or can lead to thrombosis in cyanotic patients with anemia.
Blood disorders are the second most common cause of stroke in children. Several blood disorders associated with stroke in children include:
Vascular Disorders - 23% of children with arterial ischemic stroke in one study (1)
Rare disorders. Over 100 different risk factors for stroke in children have been reported in the literature.
When we discuss causes of a hemorrhagic stroke in childhood, we're actually discussing risk factors for hemorrhagic childhood stroke. A risk factor is something that may increase the likelihood of a disease, condition, or injury. Listed below are risk factors that may be associated with hemorrhagic stroke in a child. Even though a risk factor may be identified, this does not necessarily mean that the risk factor is what caused the stroke.
Vascular malformations, blood disorders and malignancy have been identified as risk factors in children who have a hemorrhagic stroke.
Perinatal stroke in Saudi children. Clinical features and risk factors. March 2006, Saudi Arabia
Evolution of cerebral arteriopathies in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. January 2006, UK.
Pediatric stroke: the child is not merely a small adult. August 2005. Boston.
Cerebrovascular disorders in children. March, 2004. Lynch, NINDS, Maryland.
Risk factors for pediatric cerebrovascular disease This article by Dr. E. S. Roach, lists different types of congenital heart disease, acquired heart disease, hematologic disorders and coagulopathies, systemic vascular disease, vasculitis, structural anomalies of the cerebrovascular system, vasculopathies, vasospastic disorders, and trauma as possible risk factors for pediatric stroke.
Recognition and Treatment of Stroke in Children Informative overview of causes and treatment of stroke in children
Risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in childhood. June 2004. UK.
Pediatric stroke among Hong Kong Chinese Subjects. The incidence of stroke among Chinese children was slightly lower than that in Europe or North America. The etiologic pattern was different in our cohort, and there was no sickle cell anemia, thrombophilia, or sinovenous thrombosis. Despite these differences, however, mortality and long-term neurologic deficit rates were similar. August 2004. Hong Kong. Chung, Wong.
The recurrence risk of ischemic stroke in childhood (neonatal infarction not included in study). May-June 2004. Belgrade
Cerebral infarcts in a pediatric patient secondary to phenylpropanolamine, a recalled medication. April 2004. Delorio. Oregon.
Cerebrovascular disorders in children. March 2004. NINDS, Maryland.
Ischaemic stroke subtypes in children and adults, April 2003. UK
Causes Of Paediatric Ischaemic Stroke Different From Adult Stroke DGReview of Ischaemic stroke subtypes in children and adults, March, 2003
Stroke in children. Aug. 2003. India. Gulati. Overview of information on stroke in children.
Investigation of risk factors in children with arterial ischemic stroke. Feb., 2003, United Kingdom
Report of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke workshop on perinatal and childhood stroke 2002
Prospective assessment of risk factors for recurrent stroke during childhood--a 5-year follow-up study. Nov. 2002, Germany.
Neurologic manifestations of iron deficiency in childhood, Aug. 2002, Canada
Deaths from stroke in US children, 1979 to 1998. July 2002. California.
Minor head injury as cause and co-factor in the aetiology of stroke in childhood, July 2002. Germany.
Cerebrovascular disease in childhood and adolescence. Ischaemic cerebral accidents. Jan 2002. Argentina
Etiology of stroke in children. 2000. Dallas
Risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke in children. May 2000. UK
Stroke in children: genetic and metabolic issues May 2000. New York
Arterial dissection and stroke in children October 2001
Genetics and ischaemic stroke Sept. 2000,UK
Family Study of Young Stroke A Study of the Inheritance of Stroke
Subtypes of ischemic stroke in children and young adults. Dec. 1997. Indiana
Ischemic strokes in children Ischemic stroke is an uncommon, but significant cause of disability in childhood. 1997
Iron deficiency: a cause of stroke in infants and children. Jan. 1997. Canada.
Hereditary and acquired risk factors for childhood stroke. Oct. 1994. Finland.
Mendelian etiologies of stroke. August 1987. Philadelphia.
(1) Ganesan, V, Prengler, M, McShane, MA, et al; Investigation of risk factors in children with arterial ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2003, 53:167-173.
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